Amendment Of The Constitution : List of All Amendments

Article 368 in Part XX of the constitution of the Constitution deals with the powers of Parliament of amendment the Constitution and its procedure. It should be noted that Parliament cannot amend those provisions which form the ‘basic structure’ of the Constitution as ruled by the Supreme Court in the Kesavananda Bharati case(1973).

Procedure for Amendment

  1. Can be initiated only by either House of Parliament and not in the state legislatures.
  2. The bill can be introduced either by a minister or by a private member and does not require prior permission of the president.
  3. The bill must be passed in each House by a special majority of the total membership of the House and a majority of two-thirds of the members of the House present and voting.
  4. Each House must pass the bill separately. No provision of joint sitting.
  5. If the bill seeks to amend the federal provisions of the Constitution, it must also be ratified by the legislatures of half of the states by a simple majority.
  6. The Bill presented for the assent of President and in such a case President can’t withhold his assent to the bill nor return the bill for reconsideration of the Parliament.

Constitution can be amended in three ways:

  • Amendment by simple majority of the Parliament,
  • Amendment by special majority of the Parliament,
  • Amendment by special majority of the Parliament and the ratification of half of the state legislatures

List of All the Constitutional Amendment

  
Amendment Number and
Year
Amended Provisions of the Constitution
1st Amendment Act, 19511.Empowered the state to make special provisions for the advancement of socially and economically backward classes.
2.Provided for the saving of laws providing for acquisition of estates, etc.
3.Added Ninth Schedule to protect the land reform and other laws included in it from the judicial review.
4.Added three more grounds of restrictions on freedom of speech and expression, viz., public order, friendly relations with foreign states and incitement to an offence. Also, made the restrictions ‘reasonable’ and thus, justiciable in nature.
5.Provided that state trading and nationalisation of any trade or business by the state is not to be invalid on the ground of violation of the right to trade or business.
2nd Amendment Act,
1952
Readjusted the scale of representation in the Lok Sabha by providing that one member could represent
even more than 7,50,000 persons.
3rd Amendment Act,
1954
Empowered the Parliament to control the production, supply and distribution of the foodstuffs, cattle
fodder, raw cotton, cotton seed and raw jute in the public interest.
4th Amendment Act,
1955
1.Made the scale of compensation given in lieu of compulsory acquisition of private property beyond
the scrutiny of courts.
2.Authorised the state to nationalise any trade.
3.Included some more Acts in the Ninth Schedule.
4.Extended the scope of Article 31 A (savings of laws).
5th Amendment Act, 1955Empowered the president to fix the time-limit for the state legislatures to express their views on the
proposed Central legislation affecting the areas, boundaries and names of the states.
6th Amendment Act,
1956
Included a new subject in the Union list i.e., taxes on the sale and purchase of goods in the course of
inter-state trade and commerce and restricted the state’s power in this regard.
7th Amendment Act 19561. Reorganization of states on linguistic lines, abolition of Class A, B, C, D states and introduction of Union Territories.
2. Extended jurisdiction of HC to UT.
3.Common HC for two or more states
2. Provided for the appointment of additional and acting judges of the high court.
8th Amendment Act,
1960
Extended the reservation of seats for the SCs and STs, and special representation for the Anglo-Indians
in the Lok Sabha and the state legislative assemblies for a period of ten years (i.e., up to 1970).
9th Amendment Act,
1960
Facilitated the cession of Indian territory of Berubari Union (located in West Bengal) to Pakistan as
provided in the Indo-Pakistan Agreement (1958).
10th Amendment Act,
1961
Incorporated Dadra and Nagar Haveli in the Indian Union.
11th Amendment Act,
1961
1.Changed the procedure of election of the vice-president by providing for an electoral college instead
of a joint meeting of the two Houses of Parliament.
2.Provided that the election of the president or vice-president cannot be challenged on the ground of
any vacancy in the appropriate electoral college.
12th Amendment Act,
1962
Incorporated Goa, Daman and Diu in the Indian Union.
13th Amendment Act,
1962
Gave the status of a state to Nagaland and made special provisions for it.
14th Amendment
Act, 1962
1.Incorporated Puducherry in the Indian Union.
2.Provided for the creation of legislatures and council of ministers for the Union Territories of
Himachal Pradesh, Manipur, Tripura, Goa, Daman and Diu, and Puducherry.
15th Amendment Act,
1963
1.Enabled the high courts to issue writs to any person or authority even outside its territorial jurisdiction
if the cause of action arise within its territorial limits.
2.Increased the retirement age of high court judges from 60 to 62 years.
3.Provided for appointment of retired judges of the high courts as acting judges of the same court.
4.Provided for compensatory allowance to judges who are transferred from one high court to another.
5.Enabled the retired judge of a high court to act as adhoc judge of the Supreme Court.
6.Provided for the procedure for determining the age of the Supreme Court and high court judges.
16th Amendment Act,
1963
1.Empowered the state to impose further restriction on the rights to freedom of speech and
expression, to assemble peaceably and to form associations in the interests of sovereignty and
integrity of India.
2.Included sovereignty and integrity in the forms of oaths or affirmations to be subscribed by
contestants to the legislatures, members of the legislatures, ministers, judges and CAG of India.
17th Amendment
Act, 1964
1.Prohibited the acquisition of land under personal cultivation unless the market value of the land is
paid as compensation.
2.Included 44 more Acts in the Ninth Schedule.
18th Amendment
Act, 1966
Made it clear that the power of Parliament to form a new state also includes a power to form a new
state or union territory by uniting a part of a state or a union territory to another state or union territory.
19th Amendment
Act, 1966
Abolished the system of Election Tribunals and vested the power to hear election petitions in the High
Courts.
20th Amendment Act,
1966
Validated certain appointments of district judges in the UP which were declared void by the Supreme
Court.
21st Amendment
Act, 1967
Included sindhi as the 15th language in the Eight Schedule.
22nd Amendment Act, 1969Facilitated the creation of a new autonomous State of Meghalaya within the State of Assam.
23rd Amendment
Act, 1969
Extended the reservation of seats for the SCs and STs, and special representation for the Anglo-Indians
in the Lok Sabha and the state legislative assemblies for a further period of ten years (i.e., up to 1980).
24th Amendment
Act, 1971
1.Affirmed the power of Parliament to amend any part of the constitution including fundamental rights.
2.Made it compulsory for the president to give his assent to a Constitutional Amendment Bill.
25th Amendment
Act, 1971
1.Curtailed the fundamental right to property.
2.Provided that any law made to give effect to the Directive Principles contained in Article 39 (b) or
(c) cannot be challenged on the ground of violation of the rights guaranteed by Articles 14, 19 and
31.
26th Amendment
Act, 1971
Abolished the privy purses and privileges of the former rulers of princely states.
27th Amendment, 19711.Empowered the administrators of certain union territories to promulgate ordinances.
2.Made certain special provisions for new Union Territories of Arunachal Pradesh and Mizoram.
3.Authorised the Parliament to create the legislative assembly and the council of ministers for the new
state of Manipur.
28th Amendment
Act, 1972
Abolished the special privileges of ICS officers and empowered the Parliament to determine their service
conditions.
29th Amendment
Act, 1972
Included two Kerala Acts on land reforms in the Ninth Schedule.
30th Amendment Act,
1972
Did away with the provision which allowed appeal to the Supreme Court in civil cases involving an
amount of `20,000, and provided instead that an appeal can be filed in the Supreme Court only if the case
involves a substantial question of law.
31st Amendment
Act, 1972
Increased the number of Lok Sabha seats from 525 to 545.
32nd Amendment
Act, 1973
Made special provisions to satisfy the aspirations of the people of the Telengana region in Andhra
Pradesh.
33rd Amendment
Act, 1974
Provided that the resignation of the members of Parliament and the state legislatures may be accepted
by the Speaker/Chairman only if he is satisfied that the resignation is voluntary or genuine.
34th Amendment
Act, 1974
Included twenty more land tenure and land reforms acts of various states in the Ninth Schedule.
35th Amendment
Act, 1974
Terminated the protectorate status of Sikkim and conferred on it the status of an associate state of the
Indian Union. The Tenth Schedule was added laying down the terms and conditions of association of
Sikkim with the Indian Union.
36th Amendment
Act, 1975
Made Sikkim a full-fledged State of the Indian Union and omitted the Tenth Schedule.
37th Amendment
Act, 1975
Provided legislative assembly and council of ministers for the Union Territory of Arunachal Pradesh.
38th Amendment
Act, 1975
1.Made the declaration of emergency by the president non-justiciable.
2.Made the promulgation of ordinances by the president, governors and administrators of union
territories non-justiciable.
3.Empowered the president to declare different proclamations of national emergency on different
grounds simultaneously.
39th Amendment Act 19751. Placed the disputes regarding President, Vice-President, PM, Speaker beyond the scope of Judiciary
2.Included certain Central acts in the Ninth Schedule.
40th Amendment Act,
1976
1.Empowered the Parliament to specify from time to time the limits of the territorial waters, the
continental shelf, the exclusive economic zone (EEZ) and the maritime zones of India.
2.Included 64 more Central and state laws, mostly relating to land reforms, in the Ninth Schedule.
41st Amendment
Act, 1976
Raised the retirement age of members of State Public Service Commission and Joint Public Service
Commission from 60 to 62.
42nd Amendment
Act, 1976 (The most
comprehensive amendment
made so far to the
Constitution; it is known as
‘Mini-Constitution’; it gave
effect to the
recommendations of
Swaran Singh Committee.)
1.Added three new words (i.e., socialist, secular and integrity) in the Preamble.
2.Added Fundamental Duties by the citizens (new Part IV A).
3.Made the president bound by the advise of the cabinet.
4.Provided for administrative tribunals and tribunals for other matters (Added Part XIV A).
5.Froze the seats in the Lok Sabha and state legislative assemblies on the basis of 1971 census till
2001.
6.Made the constitutional amendments beyond judicial scrutiny.
7.Curtailed the power of judicial review and writ jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and high courts.
8.Raised the tenure of Lok Sabha and state legislative assemblies from 5 to 6 years.
9.Provided that the laws made for the implementation of Directive Principles cannot be declared
invalid by the courts on the ground of violation of some Fundamental Rights.
10.Empowered the Parliament to make laws to deal with anti-national activities and such laws are to
take precedence over Fundamental Rights.
11.Added three new Directive Principles viz., equal justice and free-legal aid, participation of workers
in the management of industries and protection of environment, forests and wild life.
12.Facilitated the proclamation of national emergency in a part of territory of India.
13.Extended the one-time duration of the President’s rule in a state from 6 months to one year.
14.Empowered the Centre to deploy its armed forces in any state to deal with a grave situation of law
and order.
15.Shifted five subjects from the state list to the concurrent list, viz, education, forests, protection of
wild animals and birds, weights and measures and administration of justice, constitution and
organisation of all courts except the Supreme Court and the high courts.
16.Did away with the requirement of quorum in the Parliament and the state legislatures.
17.Empowered the Parliament to decide from time to time the rights and privileges of its members and
committees.
18.Provided for the creation of the All-India Judicial Service.
19.Shortened the procedure for disciplinary action by taking away the right of a civil servant to make
representation at the second stage after the inquiry (i.e., on the penalty proposed).
43rd Amendment
Act, 1977 (Enacted by the
Janata Government to
nullify some of the
distortions introduced by
the 42nd Amendment Act
of 1976)
1.Restored the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and the high courts in respect of judicial review and
issue of writs.
2.Deprived the Parliament of its special powers to make laws to deal with anti-national activities.
44th Amendment Act 19781. Restored Original term of Loksabha and Legislative Assembly.
2. Restored the Quorum.
3. Omitted the reference to the British Parliament regarding
parliamentary privileges.
4. Constitutional protection to newspaper regarding true publication of proceedings.
5. Power to president send back any advice for reconsideration but reconsidered advice binding on President.
6. Deletion of provision which make satisfaction of president, Governor and administrators final in issuance of ordinance
7.Restored some of the powers of the Supreme Court and high courts.
8.Replaced the term ‘internal disturbance’ by ‘armed rebellion’ in respect of national emergency.
9.Made the President to declare a national emergency only on the written recommendation of the
cabinet.
10.Made certain procedural safeguards with respect to national emergency and President’s rule.
11.Deleted the right to property from the list of Fundamental Rights and made it only a legal right.
12.Provided that the fundamental rights guaranteed by Articles 20 and 21 cannot be suspended during
a national emergency.
13.Omitted the provisions which took away the power of the court to decide the election disputes of
the president, the vice-president, the prime minister and the Speaker of the Lok Sabha.
45th Amendment
Act, 1980
Extended the reservation of seats for the SCs and STs and special representation for the Anglo-Indians
in the Lok Sabha and the state legislative assemblies for a further period of ten years (i.e., up to 1990).
46th Amendment
Act, 1982
1.Enabled the states to plug loopholes in the laws and realise sales tax dues.
2.Brought about some uniformity in tax rates on certain items.
47th Amendment
Act, 1984
Included 14 land reforms Acts of various states in the Ninth Schedule.
48th Amendment
Act, 1984
Facilitated the extension of President’s rule in Punjab beyond one year without meeting the two special
conditions for such extension.
49th Amendment
Act, 1984
Gave a constitutional sanctity to the Autonomous District Council in Tripura.
50th Amendment Act,
1984
Empowered the Parliament to restrict the Fundamental Rights of persons employed in intelligence
organisations and telecommunication systems set up for the armed forces or intelligence organisations.
51st Amendment Act,
1984
Provided for reservation of seats in the Lok Sabha for STs in Meghalaya, Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland
and Mizoram as well as in the Legislative Assemblies of Meghalaya and Nagaland.
52nd Amendment
Act, 1985 (popularly known
as Anti-Defection Law)
Provided for disqualification of members of Parliament and state legislatures on the ground of defection
and added a new Tenth Schedule containing the details in this regard.
53rd Amendment
Act, 1986
Made special provisions in respect of Mizoram and fixed the strength of its Assembly at a minimum of
40 members.
54th Amendment
Act, 1986
Increased the salaries of the Supreme Court and high court judges and enabled the Parliament to change
them in future by an ordinary law.
55th Amendment Act,
1986
Made special provisions in respect of Arunachal Pradesh and fixed the strength of its Assembly at a
minimum of 30 members.
56th Amendment
Act, 1987
Fixed the strength of the Goa Legislative Assembly at a minimum of 30 members.
57th Amendment
Act, 1987
Reserved seats for the STs in the legislative assemblies of the states of Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya,
Mizoram and Nagaland.
58th Amendment
Act, 1987
Provided for an authoritative text of the Constitution in hindi language and gave the same legal sanctity to
the Hindi version of the Constitution.
59th Amendment
Act, 1988
1.Facilitated the extension of President’s Rule in Punjab up to three years.
2.Provided for the declaration of national emergency in Punjab on the ground of internal disturbance.
60th Amendment Act 1988Increased the ceiling of taxes on the professions, trades, callings and employments from 250/ annum to 2500/
61st Amendment Act,
1989
Reduced the voting age from 21 years to 18 years for the Lok Sabha and state legislative assembly
elections.
62nd Amendment
Act, 1989
Extended the reservation of seats for the SCs and STs and special representation for the Anglo-Indians
in the Lok Sabha and the state legislative assemblies for the further period of ten years (i.e., up to 2000).
63rd Amendment
Act, 1989
Repealed the changes introduced by the 59th Amendment Act of 1988 in relation to Punjab. In other
words, Punjab was brought at par with the other states in respect of emergency provisions.
64th Amendment
Act, 1990
Facilitated the extension of the President’s rule in Punjab upto a total period of three years and six
months.
65th Amendment
Act, 1990
Provided for the establishment of a multi-member National Commission for SCs and STs in the place of
a Special Officer for SCs and STs.
66th Amendment
Act, 1990
Included 55 more land reforms Acts of various states in the Ninth Schedule.
67th Amendment
Act, 1990
Facilitated the extension of the President’s rule in Punjab up to a total period of four years.
68th Amendment
Act, 1991
Facilitated the extension of the President’s rule in Punjab up to a total period of five years.
69th Amendment
Act, 1991
Accorded a special status to the Union Territory of Delhi by designing it as the National Capital Territory
of Delhi. The amendment also provided for the creation of a 70-member legislative assembly and a 7-
member council of ministers for Delhi.
70th Amendment
Act, 1992
Provided for the inclusion of the members of the Legislative Assemblies of National Capital Territory of
Delhi and the Union Territory of Puducherry in the electoral college for the election of the president.
71st Amendment
Act, 1992
Included konkani, manipuri and nepali languages in the Eight Schedule. With this, the total number of
scheduled languages increased to 18.
72nd Amendment Act, 1992Provided for reservation of seats for the STs in the Legislative Assembly of Tripura.
73rd Amendment
Act, 1992
Granted constitutional status and protection to the panchayati raj institutions. For this purpose, the
Amendment has added a new Part-IX entitled as ‘the panchayats’ and a new Eleventh Schedule
containing 29 functional items of the panchayats.
74th Amendment Act, 1992Granted constitutional status and protection to the urban local bodies. For this purpose, the Amendment
has added a new Part IX-A entitled as ‘the municipalities’ and a new Twelfth Schedule containing 18
functional items of the municipalities.
75th Amendment
Act, 1994
Provided for the establishment of rent tribunals for the adjudication of disputes with respect to rent, its
regulation and control and tenancy issues including the rights, title and interest of landlords and tenants.
76th Amendment
Act, 1994
Included the Tamil Nadu Reservation Act of 1994 (which provides for 69 per cent reservation of seats in
educational institutions and posts in state services) in the Ninth Schedule to protect it from judicial
review. In 1992, the Supreme Court ruled that the total reservation should not exceed 50 per cent.
77th Amendment Act, 1995Provided for reservation in promotions in government jobs for SCs and STs. This amendment nullified the
Supreme Court ruling with regard to reservation in promotions.
78th Amendment
Act, 1995
Included 27 more land reforms Acts of various states in the Ninth Schedule. With this, the total number
of Acts in the Schedule increased to 282. But, the last entry is numbered 284.
79th Amendment Act 1999Extended the time frame until 2010 for reservation of seats for SC, ST and Anglo Indian community in Lok Sabha
80th Amendment Act,
2000
Provided for an ‘alternative scheme of devolution’ of revenue between the Centre and states. This was
enacted on the basis of the recommendations of the Tenth Finance Commission which has recommended
that out of the total income obtained from Central taxes and duties, twenty-nine per cent should be
distributed among the states.
81st Amendment
Act, 2000
Empowered the state to consider the unfilled reserved vacancies of a year as a separate class of
vacancies to be filled up in any succeeding year or years. Such class of vacancies are not to be
combined with the vacancies of the year in which they are being filled up to determine the ceiling of 50
per cent reservation on total number of vacancies of that year. In brief, this amendment ended the 50 per
cent ceiling on reservation in backlog vacancies.
82nd Amendment
Act, 2000
Provided for making of any provision in favour of the SCs and STs for relaxation in qualifying marks in
any examination or lowering the standards of evaluation, for reservation in matters of promotion to the
public services of the Centre and the states.
83rd Amendment
Act, 2000
Provided that no reservation in panchayats need be made for SCs in Arunachal Pradesh. The total
population of the state is tribal and there are no SCs.
84th Amendment
Act, 2001
Extended the ban on readjustment of seats in the Lok Sabha and the state legislative assemblies for
another 25 years (i.e., up to 2026) with the same objective of encouraging population limiting measures.
In other words, the number of seats in the Lok Sabha and the assemblies are to remain same till 2026. It
also provided for the readjustment and rationalisation of territorial constituencies in the states on the basis
of the population figures of 1991 cesus.
85th Amendment
Act, 2001
Provided for ‘consequential seniority’ in the case of promotion by virtue of rule of reservation for the
government servants belonging to the SCs and STs with retrospective effect from June 1995.
86th Amendment
Act, 2002
1.Made elementary education a fundamental right. The newly-added Article 21-A declares that “the
State shall provide free and compulsory education to all children of the age of six to fourteen years
in such manner as the State may determine”.
2.Changed the subject matter of Article 45 in Directive Principles. It now reads—“The State shall
endeavour to provide early childhood care and education for all children until they complete the age
of six years”.
3.Added a new fundamental duty under Article 51-A which reads—“It shall be the duty of every
citizen of India who is a parent or guardian to provide opportunities for education to his child or ward
between the age of six and fourteen years”.
87th Amendment
Act, 2003
Provided for the readjustment and rationalisation of territorial constituencies in the states on the basis of
the population figures of 2001 census and not 1991 census as provided earlier by the 84th Amendment
Act of 2001.
88th Amendment
Act, 2003
Made a provision for service tax (Article 268-A). Taxes on services are levied by the Centre. But, their
proceeds are collected as well as appropriated by both the Centre and the states in accordance with the
principles formulated by parliament.
89th Amendment
Act, 2003
Bifurcated the erstwhile combined National Commission for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes into
two separate bodies, namely, National Commission for Scheduled Castes (Article 338) and National
Commission for Scheduled Tribes (Article 338-A). Both the Commissions consist of a Chairperson, a
Vice-Chairperson and three other members. They are appointed by the President.
90th Amendment Act,
2003
Provided for maintaining the erstwhile representation of the Scheduled Tribes and non- Scheduled Tribes
in the Assam legislative assembly from the Bodoland Territorial Areas District (Article 332 (6)).
91st Amendment
(2003)
ground of defection shall also be disqualified to be appointed as a minister (Article 75(1B)).
3.The total number of ministers, including the Chief Minister, in the Council of Ministers in a state shall
not exceed 15% of the total strength of the legislative Assembly of that state. But, the number of
ministers, including the Chief Minister, in a state shall not be less than 12 (Article 164(1A)).
4.A member of either House of a state legislature belonging to any political party who is disqualified
on the ground of defection shall also be disqualified to be appointed as a minister (Article 164(1B)).
5.A member of either House of Parliament or either House of a State Legislature belonging to any
political party who is disqualified on the ground of defection shall also be disqualified to hold any
remunerative political post. The expression “remunerative political post” means (i) any office under
the central government or a state government where the salary or remuneration for such office is
paid out of the public revenue of the concerned government; or (ii) any office under a body, whether
incorporated or not, which is wholly or partially owned by the central government or a state
government and the salary or remuneration for such office is paid by such body, except where such
salary or remuneration paid is compensatory in nature (Article 361-B).
6.The provision of the Tenth Schedule (anti-defection law) pertaining to exemption from
disqualification in case of split by one-third members of legislature party has been deleted. It means
that the defectors have no more protection on grounds of splits.
92nd Amendment
Act, 2003
Included four more languages in the Eighth Schedule. They are Bodo, Dogri (Dongri), Mathilli (Maithili)
and Santhali. With this, the total number of constitutionally recognised languages increased to 22.
93rd Amendment
Act, 2005
Empowered the state to make special provisions for the socially and educationally backward classes or
the Scheduled Castes or the Scheduled Tribes in educational institutions including private educational
institutions (whether aided or unaided by the state), except the minority educational institutions (clause
(5) in Article 15). This Amendment was enacted to nullify the Supreme Court judgement in the Inamdar
case (2005) where the apex court ruled that the state cannot impose its reservation policy on minority
and non-minority unaided private colleges, including professional colleges. The court declared that
reservation in private, unaided educational institutions was unconstitutional.
94th Amendment
Act, 2006
Freed Bihar from the obligation of having a tribal welfare minister and extended the same provision to
Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh. This provision will now be applicable to the two newly formed states and
Madhya Pradesh and Orissa, where it has already been in force (Article 164(1)).
95th Amendment
Act, 2009
Extended the reservation of seats for the SCs and STs and special representation for the Anglo-Indians
in the Lok Sabha and the state legislative assemblies for a further period of ten years i.e., upto 2020
(Article 334).
96th Amendment
Act, 2011
Substituted “Odia” for “Oriya”. Consequently, the “Oriya” language in the Eighth Schedule shall be
pronounced as “Odia”.
97th Amendment Act, 2011Gave a constitutional status and protection to co-operative societies. In this context, it made the following
three changes in the constitution:
1.It made the right to form co-operative societies a fundamental right (Article 19).
2.It included a new Directive Principle of State Policy on promotion of co-operative societies (Article
43-B).
3.It added a new Part IX-B in the constitution which is entitled as “The Co-operative societies”
(Articles 243-ZH to 243-ZT).
98th Amendment Act, 2012Provided for special provisions for the Hyderabad- Karnataka region of the State of Karnataka. The
special provisions aim to establish an institutional mechanism for equitable allocation of funds to meet the
development needs over the region, as well as to enhance human resources and promote employment
from the region by providing for local cadres in service and reservation in educational and vocational
training institutions (Article 371-J).
99th Amendment Act 2014The amendment provides for the formation of a National Judicial Appointments Commission. 16 State assemblies out of 29 States including Goa, Rajasthan, Tripura, Gujarat and Telangana ratified the Central Legislation, enabling the President of India to give assent to the bill. The amendment was struck down by the Supreme Court on 16 October 2015
100th Amendment Act Exchange of certain enclave territories with Bangladesh and conferment of citizenship rights to residents of enclaves consequent to signing of Land Boundary Agreement (LBA) Treaty between India and Bangladesh.
101st Amendment Act Goods and Services Tax Act
Source Inidan Polity By Lakshmikant Wikipedia

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