In News: Quit India Movement, Article 370, August 09 Complete News Analysis

Current Affairs and News Digest for August 09

75th anniversary of Quit India Movement

The 75th anniversary of the Quit India Movement was observed across the country. This year’s theme was “Sankalp se Siddhi- the attainment through resolve”.

The campaign pledges to build new India by 2022

Quit India Movement

  • The Quit India Movement was an important milestone in the Indian freedom struggle. It was a civil disobedience movement launched at the Bombay session of the All-India Congress Committee (AICC) by Mahatma Gandhi on 8 August 1942 demanding an end to British Rule of India.
  • It was launched after Mahatma Gandhi had made a call to Do or Die in his Quit India speech delivered in Bombay at the Gowalia Tank Maidan on 7 August 1942. Gandhi hoped to bring the British government to the negotiating table as the Cripps Mission had failed.
  • Quit India Resolution drafted by Jawaharlal Nehru and was moved by him on 8th August 1942 in AICCC session.

Kerala, Haryana top sanitation survey

The Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation on Tuesday released the findings of the survey of 1.4 lakh rural households, undertaken by the Quality Council of India (QCI) between May and June this year.

Highlights:

  • The survey, covering 4626 villages across all States and Union territories, claimed that 62.45% of the households had access to a toilet. The survey also pointed that 91.29% of the people who had access to a toilet also used it, indicating a change in sanitation behaviour.
  • Northeastern States of Sikkim, Manipur and Nagaland were top performers with 95% rural households covered by toilets.
  • Himalayan States of Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand with over 90% toilet coverage of the rural houses.
  • In Bihar, only 30% of the rural households had access to toilets while Uttar Pradesh was marginally better at 37%. Jharkhand, too scored the same as Uttar Pradesh.

About Swachh Bharat Abhiyan

Swachh Bharat Abhiyan is a campaign which was launched on 2 October 2014, and aims to eradicate open defecation by 2019, (150th anniversary of the birth of Mahatma Gandhi) and is a national campaign. Its predecessors were the “Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan” and before that the “Total Sanitation Campaign”.


Supreme Court seeks Centre’s reply on validity of special status to J&K

The Supreme Court sought response from the Centre on a plea against a Delhi High Court order by which it had rejected a petition challenging validity of Article 370 of the Constitution giving special status to Jammu and Kashmir.

Petitioner contention:

  • Article 370 was a temporary provision that had lapsed with the dissolution of the state’s Constituent Assembly in 1957.
  • The continuance of the temporary provision of Article 370 even after dissolution of the state’s Constituent Assembly and its Constitution which has never got the assent of the President of India or Parliament or the Government of India, “amounts to fraud on the basic structure of our Constitution“.

Previously: In July 2014, the Supreme Court had dismissed a plea challenging the special status granted to Jammu and Kashmir and had asked the petitioner to move the High Court.


Does pre schooling prepare kids for school?

A comprehensive three-state study by Annual Status of Education Report (ASER, also conducted survey on learning level in rural India), UNICEF and Ambedkar University Delhi shows an early start matters — but so do several other factors.

Survey Sample

4,000 children from Assam, Telangana and Rajasthan over five years — starting in 2011, from the time these children were 4 years old, and ending in 2015.

Findings

  1. Gap between what parents want and what is developmentally appropriate for the child. While parents wanted children to start with reading, writing and arithmetic — experts recommend age-appropriate, conceptual learning as part of early preschool education.
  2. Gender has always played a key role in deciding access to school, with larger proportions of boys than girls attending private institutions, the report shows that discrimination begins early, with boys standing a better chance of being sent to a private preschool than girls.
  3. In Indian schools, mixed classrooms are common, although Right to Education Act has made it compulsory to admit 6 years old to class 1

Recommendations

  1. Include preschool education as part of the Right to Education Act. The Act currently covers children aged 6-14, excluding children below age 6 from its ambit.
  2. Section 11 of the RTE Act asks state governments “to endeavour to provide preschool education… so as to prepare them for primary education”. But it does not make Early Childhood Care and Education a justiciable right of every child.
  3. The report also calls for paying attention to the quality of pre schooling, and a regulation or accreditation system for the sector.

President Ram Nath Kovind has appointed Justice Dipak Misra (63), senior-most judge of the Supreme Court as the next Chief Justice of India. He will be 45th CJI and succeeds Justice JS Khehar.

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