Physical Features of India – Facts about India Geography

World’s largest democracy India possess greater variety in its physical features. Its geographic area is vast and full of diversity. Through this article, we will discuss physical features of India and some facts about Indian Geography.

 Facts about India

  • Covers an area of 32, 87,263 sq. km
  • The Seventh largest country in the world in terms of area.
  • Ranks second in population
  • 3,214 km from north to south between the extreme latitudes
  • 2,933 km from east to west between the extreme longitudes
  • The Land frontier of about 15,200 km.
  • The total length of the coastline of the mainland, Lakshadweep Islands and Andaman and Nicobar Islands is 7,516.6 km.
  • Divided into six zones mainly North, South, East, West, Central, and North-East zone
  • 29 states and seven union territories.

Neighbors and Borders

  • Afghanistan and Pakistan to the northwest
  • China, Bhutan and Nepal to the north
  • Myanmar to the Far East
  • Bangladesh to the east
  • Sri Lanka is separated from India by a narrow channel of sea formed by the Palk Strait and the Gulf of Mannar

Physical Features of India

The mainland is divided into four regions

  1. The great mountain zone
  2. Plains of the Ganga and the Indus,
  3. The desert region and
  4. The southern peninsula.

The great mountain zone It Comprises Himalayan region in the North and Naga-Lushai mountain in the East which extends to 2400km with a varying depth of 240 to 320 Km. Main Passes in this region are Jelep La and Nathu La which are on the main indo Tibet route passes through Chumbi valley. Darjeeling and Shipki La in Satluj Valley Kalpa (Kinnaur). are few of motor able passes in this region. Garo, Khasi, Jaintia and Naga Hills, running almost east-west, join the chain to Mizo and Rakhine Hills running north-south.

Darjeeling and Shipki La in Satluj Valley Kalpa (Kinnaur) are few of motorable passes in this region. Garo, Khasi, Jaintia and Naga Hills, running almost east-west, join the chain to Mizo and Rakhine Hills running north-south.

Ganga and the Indus, about 2,400 km long and 240 to 320 km broad, are formed by basins of three distinct river systems—the Indus, the Ganga and the Brahmaputra.

The desert region can be divided into two parts—the ‘great desert’ and the ‘little desert’. The great desert extends from the edge of the Rann of Kutch beyond the Luni River northward. The whole of the Rajasthan-Sind frontier runs through this. The little desert extends from the Luni between Jaisalmer and Jodhpur up to the northern west.

The Peninsular Plateau is marked off from the plains of the Ganga and the Indus by a mass of mountain and hill ranges varying from 460 to 1,220 meters in height. Some of these are the Aravali, Vindhya, Satpura, Maikala and Ajanta. It is surrounded on one side by the Eastern Ghats and the other by the Western Ghats which has higher altitude of mountains. The southern point of the plateau is formed by the Nilgiri Hills where the Eastern and the Western Ghats meet.

The Cardamom Hills lying beyond may be regarded as a continuation of the Western Ghats.

Geological Structure

The geological regions broadly follow the physical features and may be grouped into three regions:

  1. The Himalayas and their associated group of mountains,
  2. The Indo-gangetic Plain and
  3. The Peninsular Shield.

 

 

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